Cost Engineering Terminology
TermDefinitionSource
A Cost EAssociation of Cost EngineersProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
AccelerationThe execution of the planned scope of work in a shorter time than anticipated or the execution of an increased scope of work within the originally planned duration. The Society of Construction Law, Delays and Disruption Protocol
Accepted ProgrammeThe Protocol recommends that the Contractor be required to submit a draft programme for the whole of the works to the CA and that this draft programme be accepted by the CA. Once accepted by the CA, it is known in the Protocol as the Accepted Programme.The Society of Construction, Law, Delays and Disruption Protocol
AccountPrimary grouping of costs established for administrative and accounting purposes.Association of Cost Engineers (UK)
AccountGrouping of costs for administration and control purposesProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Account CodeAlpha-numeric code used to identify an individual cost account.Association of Cost Engineers (UK)
Account CodeUnique identifier for a cost account the code can be alphaProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
AccountabilityDefined level or point of budget authority and control responsibilityAssociation of Cost Engineers (UK)
AccountabilityThe point of budget authority and control responsibility - usually an individual will have authority for control within the defined scopeProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Accounts PayableValue of goods and services for which payment has not yet been made.Association of Cost Engineers (UK)
Accounts PayableValue of goods and services received and yet to be paid forProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Accounts ReceivableValue of goods and services executed and for which payment is yet to be receivedProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Accreditation (VQ)The acceptance of qualification by QCA AND SQA as meeting the criteria specified for NVQs and SVQs. Organisations can also be accredited to carry out assessment.Provoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
AccrualCost incurred or income earned but not yet recorded in the books.Association of Cost Engineers (UK)
Accrual BasisAccounting records for costs incurred and income earnedProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Accrued CostTotal spends to date plus accrualsProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Accrued IncomeTotal recorded income plus income associated with accrued workProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Accuracy FactorFactor used in estimating to indicate the likely range or level of accuracy of an estimate.Association of Cost Engineers (UK)
Accuracy FactorFactor expressing the range or the level of accuracy of an estimateProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
ActivityAn operation or process with a defined duration. May have an associated cost number of these logic linked will underpin the lowest level in a Work Breakdown StructureProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Activity FloatThe duration contingency directly related to a single activity built into the planned duration of that activity. Activity float is established simply by dictating an activity duration that is greater than the actual time needed to complete that activity.The Society of Construction, Law, Delays and Disruption Protocol
Activity SamplingA method of recording work activity in a statistical manner in order to allow an analysis of the total activityProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Activity-On-Arrow Network DiagramA network presentation where the arrows represent network activities the nodes represent end eventsProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Activity-On-Node Network Precedence DiagramA network presentation where the nodes symbolise the network activitiesProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Actual Cost of Work Performed (ACWP)Recorded cost or value of work or service actually completedProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
ActualsRecorded of actual achievements for cost/revenue/ time against planned elementsProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Advanced FundingFunds made available prior to formal funding/contract to cover payment for goods or services contracted or delivered prior to formal funding/contract Provoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
AFCApproved for construction Provoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
AFDApproved for designProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Ageing RatePre-determined level of depreciation expense or capital cost for given unit of timeProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
AllowancesProvision made for work which it is known by experience will occur but for which there is no information at the time of estimate preparationProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
AncillariesNeeded auxiliary items/materials usually unspecifiedProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
APL (VQ)Accreditation of prior learning. A process which enables individuals to gain credit on the basis of past achievements learning and experienceProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
APMAssociation of Project ManagementProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
AppropriationAuthorised allocation of funds for specific future workProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Appropriation EstimateEarly cost estimate for budget purposesProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Appropriation RequestFormal request for management approval of funding for a future projectProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Approved Centre (VQ)An organisation accredited by an Awarding Body to carry out the assessment of candidates and to recommend the award of an NVQ or SVQProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
As-built programmeThe record of the history of the construction project in the form of a programme. The as-built programme does not necessarily have any logic links. It can be merely a bar-chart record of the start and end dates of every activity that actually took place. 'As constructed programme' has the same meaning.The Society of Construction, Law, Delays and Disruption Protocol
As-Sold EstimateFinal purchase or contract sales estimate inclusive of all pre-contract changes and adjustments to reflect the actual as sold of supply or scProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
As-Sold PriceActual value of purchase order or contract as sold inclusive of all escalation and other price variation conditionsProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Assessment (VQ)The judgement of performance and knowledge evidence to decide whether competence has been achievedProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Assessment Plan (VQ)A plan detailing the methods and opportunities by which evidence covering each element of competence is to be generated collected and evaluatedProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Assessor (VQ)A person registered and approved as competent to assess candidates in a particular range of occupationsProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Asset Reference PlanPlan setting out the main elements of how an asset will be developed and operated from inception through to disposalProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Asset under construction registerList of the projects currently in progress where purchase has taken placeProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
AssetsCurrent value of property investmentsProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
AuditIndependent verification of a projects current status against the target cost schedule and/or codes of practiseProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Authorised BudgetAny budget duly approved by pre-defined level of authorityProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Authorised ChangeApproved change to a previously authorised cost/scope/time by the appropriate authorityProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Authorised CostAny cost: actual estimated or budgetedProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Authorised EstimateEstimate approved by the appropriate authorityProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Authorised Man-hoursEstimate of budgeted man-hours approved by the appropriate authorityProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Auxiliary FacilitiesNon-productivity supporting elements particularly in factory or plantProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Available CapitalValue of funds available for capital investment purchase of goods or servicesProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Average Annual CardConversion of all capital and operating costs to a series of equivalent annual expensesProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Average CostArithmetical mean cost = total expense divided by total quantityProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Average Investment ReturnSummation of fixed and variable dividends or profile normally expressed as a percentage of the capital cost employedProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Average Overhead RateRatio of indirect to direct expenses normally expressed as a percentage per annumProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Awarding Body (VQ)A body approved by the Qualifications and Curriculum Authority (QCA) and/or the Scottish Qualification Authority (SQA) for the purpose of awarding an NVQ or SVQProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
BackchargeClaim made against supplier contractor or subcontractor for remedial workProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Backward Pass (Backward Plan)Critical path calculation process which having calculated earliest date for activities on the network. Work backwards to find activities latest start and finish dates/floatProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Bar ChartA chart on which activities and their durations are represented by lines to a time scaleProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Bar Chart scheduleGraphical representation of project activities or resources drawn as horizontal lines against a common time scaleProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Base CostCost (estimate or estimate item) established as a basis for calculating escalation changesProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Base DateDate set as a programme/estimate base for calculating price variations forward escalationProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Base EstimateAn estimate generated against a defined scope of work and established as a basis for evaluating subsequent adjustments modifications or changesProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Base Exchange RateA currency exchange rate used in preparation of a cost estimate or budget and established as a basis for calculating subsequent actual currency differentials or variancesProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Base LineA set of dates and costs frozen at the start of the project and used as a basis for comparison as the project progressesProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Base RateRate used as a basis for evaluation of the effect of future changes in interest chargesProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Basic PriceStandard rate or value adjustable by discount escalation or variation to suite specific circumstances applications and/or arrangementsProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Basic TimeA term used in Work Study to define the time taken to achieve a task by a normally motivated and skilled operative net of all allowances for relaxationProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Battery LimitsThe boundary/maximum extent of a contract scope area or system often used to manage interfaces between contract or commissioning of systemsProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
BenchmarkA comparable standard for a generic groupProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Benefit (R)Assessed chance and impact of a potentially advantageous occurrenceProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Benefit of FinanceInterest calculation based on the net cash flow and calculated on an average weekly basisProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Bid Analysis (Tender Analysis)Activity of analysing suppliers' quotations or contractors' tendersProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Bid BondSum provided by bidder as guarantee that the bid will be submitted and if acceptedProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Bid CheckReview of suppliers' quotations or contractors' tenders for compliance with the bid instructionsProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Bid ComparisonDocument for comparison of suppliers' quotations or contractors' tenders as part of the selection processProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Bid QuantitiesMaterial or construction quantities issued to suppliers or contractors for bidding purposesProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Bid TabulationProcess of summarising the results of Bid Analysis for comparison purposesProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Bill of MaterialsList of materials quantities estimated or measured from drawings for estimating or procurement purposesProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Bill of QuantitiesList of construction quantities estimated or measured from drawings for tender pricing and contract payment purposesProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Bill of Quantities ContractContract awarded against a Bill of Quantities for which payment is made in accordance with the unit prices contained in the bill of quantitiesProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
BondSum of money securities or a guarantee of a third party to guarantee completion of the work and/or recovery of sProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
BonusIncentive payment over and above agreed wage or contractual reimbursement usually relating to achievement targetsProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Bonus Incentive/ Bond SchemePayment framework agreement to increase output from work forceProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Bonus/ Penalty ClauseContractual incentive placed on supplier or contractor to achieve certain completion targets for which a bonus payment is earned or a financial penalty incurredProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Book ValueAsset as recorded in the books of a businessProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
BrainstormingStructural collection of ideas/solutions against a particular issue/topic. Often done in a workshop environmentProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Brown Field SiteSites on which buildings/structures exist or have previously existedProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
BudgetAuthorised target for project achievement, usually expressed in terms of quantities, manhours or costs.Association of Cost Engineers (UK)
BudgetAuthorised target for project achievement or part thereof usually expressed in terms of quantitiesProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Budget CentreA financial centre that owns and controls its own budgetProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Budget CostThe target cost for completion of the work packageProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Budget Cost of Work Performance (BCWP)Budget value for work completed or services rendered at cut off dateProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Budget Cost of Work Scheduled (BCWS)Budget value for work or service planned (scheduled) to be completed or rendered at the cut off dateProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Budget TransferAuthorised adjustment to budget targets which do not increase or decrease the total budgetProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Budget Unit CostUnit cost applied to budget item quantities to calculate the item budget costProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Budget VarianceVariance between budget and actual/forecast quantities man-hours or costsProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Budgetary ControlThe continuous comparison of actual with the budget values in order to maintain costs in line with the budget or to provide a basis for its revisionProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Building ServicesMechanical electrical or other specialised utilities within a building or plantProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Bulk Factors (1)Multipliers applied to manufactured equipment costs to calculate erected plant or total installation costs including associated bulk materials and ancillariesProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Bulk Factors (2)Index for granular and earthworks materials to allow for the increase in volume of an excavated material removed from its original state - needProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Bulk MaterialsAny material purchased in bulkProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
BurdenOverhead expenses distributed as an add-on cost to direct costProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Buying Gain/LossThe difference between the budget provisions for a material or service and the contracted cost paid by the contractorProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Cancellation ChargesContract charges submitted by a supplier or contractor in the event of cancellation of purchase order or termination of contract by client or othersProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Cancellation CostsCosts incurred on a project due to cancellation or termination or an issued purchase order or contractProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Capacity FactorTerm used in Estimating in respect of the capacity ratio between two similar plantsProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
CapitalMoney invested or available for investment against which earnings and dividends are assessedProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Capital BudgetingDefined allocation of capital resources for approved future investmentProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Capital Cost EstimateA proposed fixed asset cost estimate covering designProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Capital ExpenditureExpenditure arising form the implementation of a fixed asset or improvement of an existing assetProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Capital RecoveryRecovery of capital invested in a project over its operating including allowed depreciationProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Cascade ChartA bar chart where the vertical presentation shows each activity as dependent on activities higher in the listProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
CashMonies in hand or available for immediate useProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Cash BasisMethod of recording cost and income data based on actual cash payments and receiptsProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Cash CallProjection and request for future cash requirements at specific points in timeProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Cash FlowForecast cash balance against time based on the net flow of actual or anticipated cash payments i.e.Provoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Cash GenerationNet increase in cash flow from an investmentProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
CBSCost Break Down Structure - Generic coding hierarchy for companies cost code cost unit and cost items enabling compilation of norms and project estimating ratiosProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
CEPCapital Expenditure Proposal (generally a client document) and usually underpinned by a class II estimateProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Change AlertAdvanced notice of potential changeProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Change ControlThe process of tracking and monitoring for early detectionProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Change EstimateEstimate evaluating a potential change to the projectProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Change ImpactEffect of change on project code and scheduleProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Change ManagementThe monitoring recording and assessment of changes to the scope and/or timing of a project and the management of tProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Change of ScopeChange to the previously contracted scope of supply or workProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Change OrderAuthorised Change Order RequestProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Change Order RequestRequest for authorisation to implement a change to the current project/contract scopeProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Change/ variationAny difference between the circumstances and/or content of the contract works as carried out, compared with the circumstances and/or content under which the works are described in the contract documents as required to be or intended to have been carried out. A change or variation may or may not carry with it a right to an extension of time and/or additional payment.The Society of Construction, Law, Delays and Disruption Protocol
Charge Out-ratePrice charged for man-hours etcProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
CIFCarriage, Insurance and FreightProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
ClaimDemand made for compensation or additional remuneration for which one of the contracted parties considers he has a contractual rightProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Class I EstimateDetailed estimate prepared for control purposes from well-defined design data to an accuracy of +1/-5% (Also know as Definitive Estimate Detailed EstimateProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Class II EstimateSemi-detailed estimate prepared for initial budget purposes from preliminary but largely fixed design data to an accuracy +1%/-10% (Also known as Budget Estimate Sanction EstimateProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Class III EstimatePre-budget estimate prepared from very preliminary design data to an accuracy of +1%/-10% (Also known as Evaluation Estimate Pre-Design EstimateProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
ClientsThose to whom a person or business has responsibility. That responsibility may be direct and defined contractually or it may be indirect and implied through the person's accountability for achievements and resources. In some industry sectors other terms such as 'customer'Provoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Clocked TimeTotal hours recorded by employees between clocking on and offProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Close-out Report (aka Project de-brief)Final end of project or end of assignment report to capture lessons learnt and out-turns for project memoryProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Code of AccountsA complete set of Account Codes for collation analysis and allocation as part of cost control or for future estimating purposes (i.e. Project MemProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Collapsed as-builtA method of delay analysis where the effects of events are 'subtracted' from the as-built programme to determine what would have occurred but for those events.The Society of Construction, Law, Delays and Disruption Protocol
Collateral WarrantyA binding legal contract alongside of but separate fromProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
CommercialRelating to trading activities and considerationsProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Commissioning PhaseThe period following completion of construction and installation work of an area/system when commissioning of some/all of the works takes placeProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
CommunityThe public in general and those that represent the public interest in particularProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Compensable eventExpression sometimes used to describe what in the Protocol is an Employer Risk Event in respect of which the Contractor is entitled to compensation.The Society of Construction, Law, Delays and Disruption Protocol
CompensationThe recovery or payment of money for work done or time taken up whether by way of valuation, loss and/or expense or damagesThe Society of Construction, Law, Delays and Disruption Protocol
Competence (VQ)The ability to perform work activities to the national standards required in employmentProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
ComplyMeet all the specified conditionsProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
ConcurrencyTrue concurrent delay is the occurence of two or more delay events at the same time, one an Employer Risk Event, the other a Contractor Risk Event and the effects of which are felt at the same time. The term 'concurrent delay' is often used to describe the situation where two or more events arise at different times, but the effects of them are felt (in whole or in part) at the same time. To avoid confusion, this is more correctly termed the 'concurrent effect' of sequential delay events.The Society of Construction, Law, Delays and Disruption Protocol
Condition MoneyAdditional money paid to site labour/staff to compensate for working in difficult or unusual conditions i.e. heightsProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Conditions of ContractTerms agreed by the parties to the contract for delivery and/or cessation of the contractProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Confidence Limit (R)A project cost or schedule percentage probability of achievement or the value for a predefined maximum or acceptable limits (uProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Configuration ManagementThe technical and administrative activities concerned with the creation maintenance and controlled change of configuration data throughout the life of a productProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Construction AreaAn area within a construction site allocated for construction purposesProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Construction IndirectsTerm commonly used to describe all indirect field expenses such as non-productive labourProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Construction Management Contract (CM)A contract where the contractor will be reimbursed a defined fee and preliminaries for undertaking the works (or just the feeProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Construction PhilosophyOverall strategy for construction work defining proposed methods of executionProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Construction QuantitiesMeasured and quantified construction workProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Constructive accelerationAcceleration following failure by the Employer to recognise that the Contractor has encountered Employer Delay for which it is entitled to an EOT and which failure required the Contractor to accelerate its progress in order to complete the works by the prevailing contract completion date. This situation may be brought about by the Employer's denial of a valid request for an EOT or by the Employer's late granting of an EOT. Not(currently)a recognised concept under English law.The Society of Construction, Law, Delays and Disruption Protocol
ConsumablesMaterial consumed or construction aids permanently incorporated into a construction project including non-recoverable formworkProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
ContingencyBudgetary provision for unforeseeable occurrences within a defined project scope, commonly released or reduced by formula.Association of Cost Engineers (UK)
ContingencyEstimate provision to fund unforeseeable occurrences within the defined scopeProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Contingency Draw downThe transfer from contingency to authorised estimate in order to fund in deviations/risks that have arisenProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Contingency ManagementThe monitoring and maintenance of remaining contingency in terms of fund transfers and remaining riskProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Contingent ReserveThe current budgetary provisions to cover potential risk occurrencesProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
ContractLegal and binding agreement usually in writing between two or more parties defining scope of work or services to be deliveredProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Contract Administration (CA)The person responsible for adminstration of the contract, including certifying what extensions of time are due, or what additional costs or loss and expense is to be compensated. Depending on the form of contract the person may be referred to by such tems as Employer's Agent, Employer's Representative, Contract Administrator, Project Manager or Supervising Officer or be specified as a particular professional, such as the Architect or the Engineer. The contract administrator may be one of the Employer's employees.The Society of Construction, Law, Delays and Disruption Protocol
Contract Completion DateThe date by which the contractor is contractually obliged to complete the works. As well as an overall date for completion, may be the date for completion of a section of the works or a milestone date. The expression 'completion date' is sometimes used by Contractors to describe the date when they plan to complete the works (which may be earlier than the contract completion date). The protocol avoids this confusion by using the expression 'contract completion date'.The Society of Construction, Law, Delays and Disruption Protocol
Contract Price Adjustment (CPA)A provision in the contract to adjust the contract sum in respect of escalationProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Contract ProgrammeThe agreed logic schedule for the contract showing the major deliverables and their relationships/key dates against which the contract report is prepared and any justification for extensions of time or acceleration are evaluated Provoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
ContractorThe party responsible for carrying out the works is generally referred to as the 'Contractor'. The Protocol is applicable to sub-contracts as well as main contracts, so when it is being applied to a sub-contract, it is the sub-contractor that is being referred to as the 'Contractor' in the Protocol.The Society of Construction, Law, Delays and Disruption Protocol
Contractor DelayExpression commonly used to describe any delay caused by a Contractor Risk Event. The Protocol is distinguishes between: Contractor Delay to Progress which is a delay which will merely cause delay to the Contractor's progress without causing a contract completion date not to be met; and Contractor Delay to Completion which is a delay which will cause a contract completion date not to be met.The Society of Construction, Law, Delays and Disruption Protocol
Contractor Risk EventAn event or cause of delay which under the contract is at the risk and responsibility of the Contractor.The Society of Construction, Law, Delays and Disruption Protocol
Contractor's planned completion dateThe date shown on the Contractor's programme as being the date when the Contractor plans to complete the works under the contract.The Society of Construction, Law, Delays and Disruption Protocol
Contractors AreaArea on a construction site set aside for contractors site establishmentsProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Control BudgetA budget used for high level control of the project/contract and against which actual performance is measuredProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Control EstimateAn estimate as a reference estimate for cost control of the project/contractProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Control ProgrammeThe agreed logic schedule for the contract showing the major deliverables and their relationships/key dates against which the contract report is prepared and any justification for extensions of time or acceleration are evaluated Provoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Control ToolAny cost/schedule control aid e.g. An estimate programme budgetProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Cost AnalysisSystematic segregation and manipulation of cost data into elements or categories for detail examinationProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Cost BlackoutProlonged absence of verified actual and forecast cost status this is often caused by failing to understand the impact of migration of internal scope arising durProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Cost Breakdown Structure (CBS)Systematic breakdown of costs into pre-defined elements in order to summate cost to like items/develop ratios for comparison between projects memory estimating for future projectsProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Cost BudgetCost target for completionProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Cost CentreA business area with authority to manage its cost within its authorised annual budget cost are collected against the centres budget items as part of the management/feedback processProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Cost Classification - Application of IndicesFramework different types of costs into defined groups and sub-groups to develop norms for comparison between projects and input to project memory for estimating of future projectsProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Cost CodeA unique code within a hierarchy assigned to a specific cost item with an attribute (category)Provoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Cost ControlSystematic monitor of expenditure to track/manage completion within pre-determined budgets and targetsProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Cost DeviationVariance from the current control base or basisProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Cost ElementClassified component of larger cost itemProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Cost EngineerAn engineer who as a consequence of his training and experience is competent in the use and development of the principles of cost engineeringProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Cost EngineeringThe engineering practise devoted to the project cost management involving such activities as estimating
Cost Estimate/ ForecastAny considered prediction of future or final project costsProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Cost HistoryRecord of previously incurred costs or cost movements against estimate items or areas of expenditureProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Cost Impact (R)The effect of some event often a risk occurrence or change
Cost IndexTabulation factors measured from a base date recording the cost movements for a particular category or item or unit or work over a series of time periods i.e annuallyProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Cost IndicesSeries of factored tabulations as defined above for Cost IndexProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Cost JournalAccounts bookkeeping record of individual daily transactions in Cost Ledger may be within an IT systemProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Cost LedgerAccounting book recording both cost and revenue may be within an IT systemProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Cost Model (Cost Schedule)Plan of proposed or anticipated of expenditure phased over scheduled time periods in the case of a cost schedule costs will be attached to the activities on the networkProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Cost MonitoringContinuous tracking of the costs of work in progress with against control estimate cost targetsProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Cost MovementAny change in the previously recorded cost for an estimate itemProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Cost NormEstablished average or expected cost of defined item or unit of workProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Cost of CapitalExpected return that is foregone by investing in a project rather than in comparable financial securitiesProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Cost of DateCosts committed incurred
Cost Over-runAny cost in excess of that budgetedProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Cost PhasingTerm used to describe the distribution over time of planned or actual cost incurredProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Cost Plus Contract (Cost Reimbursable)Form of contract where reimbursement is based on actual costs incurred plus a mark-up or fee to cover overhead and profitProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Cost StatusCurrent cost position expressed in terms of budgets commitmentsProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Cost StudyReview/analysis of costs associated with a potential revision to strategy/options or a new projectProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Cost TrendTracking/extrapolation of Actual cost performance dataProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Cost VarianceActual or forecast cost deviation from the previously forecast or budgeted values for the estimate itemProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
CPAContract price adjustments Provoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
CPICost Performance Index: the ratio of actual cost over budgeted cost for completed workProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Critical ActivityAn activity on the critical pathProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Critical EventAn event on the critical pathProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Critical Evidence (VQ)Evidence of work performance which candidates must provide for National Vocational Qualification assessment purposes
Critical pathThe sequence of activities through a project network from start to finish, the sum of whose durations determines the overall project duration. There may be more than one critical path depending on workflow logic. A delay to progress of any activity on the critical will, without acceleration or re-sequencing, cause the overall project duration to be extended, and is therefore referred to as a 'critical delay'. The Society of Construction, Law, Delays and Disruption Protocol
Critical path analysis (CPA) and Critical path method (CPM)The critical path analysis or method is the process of deducting the critical activities in a programme by tracing the logical sequence of tasks that directly affect the date of project completion. It is a methodology or management technique that determines a project's critical path. The resulting programme may be depicted in a number of different forms, including a Gantt or bar chart, line-of-balance diagram, time-scaled logic diagram or as a time-challenge diagram, depending on the nature of the works represented in the programme.The Society of Construction, Law, Delays and Disruption Protocol
CTRCost, Time and Resources - particular concept of project control based on assigning costsProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Culpable delayExpression sometimes used to describe what the Protocol calls Contractor DelayThe Society of Construction, Law, Delays and Disruption Protocol
Currency DifferentialCost variance arising from currency exchange rate fluctuationsProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Current BudgetOriginal budget plus all approved budget changes and transfersProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Current Cost VarianceCurrent variance between Actual Cost of Work Performed and Budget cost of Work PerformedProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Current CostsBased on current date cost position and derived from evaluation of current dataProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
DamagesSums of money awarded as financial compensation for a tort or breach of contractProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Data BankCollection of project information norms
Date for completionThe date by which the contractor is expected to complete the works, which may be earlier or later than the contract completion date.The Society of Construction, Law, Delays and Disruption Protocol
Day WorkWork paid for on an hourly daily or weekly time basisProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Day Work ContractContract reimbursed against Day Work ratesProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Day Work RatesHourly, daily or weekly rates for Day Work
De-EscalationProcess of evaluating and removing actual escalation from spends to dateProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
DebitCharge to an accountProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Deed of WarrantyA specific main contract obligation for the sub-contractor to provide the warranty under deedProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Defective Work Charge (see Backcharge)Contract may require defective work to be replacedProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Definition EstimateDetailed estimate prepared for control purposes from well-defined engineering/design dataProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Definition PhaseInitial period of a project when confirmation of scope and project strategy is developedProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Delay eventAn event or cause of delay, which may be either an Employer Risk Event or a Contractor Risk Event.The Society of Construction, Law, Delays and Disruption Protocol
Delay to CompletionIn common usage, this expression may mean either delay to the date when the contractor planned to complete its works, or a delay to the contract completion date. The Protocol uses the expressions Employer Delay to Completion and Contractor Delay to Completion, both of which mean delay to a contract completion date - see their definitions.The Society of Construction, Law, Delays and Disruption Protocol
Delay to ProgressIn the Protocol, this means a delay which will merely cause delay to the Contractor's progress without causing a contract completion date not to be met. It is either an Employer Delay to Progress or a Contractor Delay to Progess.The Society of Construction, Law, Delays and Disruption Protocol
DeliverablesProject measurable documents, materials and other physical commodities or outputs capable of being delivered/tracked against a sp
Delivered Material CostAll up cost of material delivered to site inclusive of freight
DemobilisationTerm used to describe final project or contract termination close-out activityProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
DemurrageCharges payable for detention of a vessel vehicle or trailer
DepartmentalisationThe division of an organisation into departments cost centres or service units for budgetary cost control purposesProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
DepreciationDrop in value of a capital asset due to use or ageingProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Depreciation ReserveAn account set up to receive credits to offset depreciation chargesProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Design and Construct ContractContract based on a brief provided by the owner against which a contractor designs and constructs a projectProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Design BasisFormal front-end document defining project scope of work anticipated execution philosophy required for engineering design activity
Design CostCost of preparing a defined design inclusive of all fees
Design DevelopmentNominal allowance in an estimate or forecast for anticipated additional costs arising from natural evolution of preliminary design dataProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Design Management & Construct Contract (DMC)A type of Design & Build which generally though not exclusivelyProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Designed QuantitiesQuantities derived from take off from drawings with allowances for MUI (Miscellaneous and Unspecified Items) etc.
DevelopRefine an initial idea or proposal to the point at which it holds together as a coherent and potentially viable propositionProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Direct CostAny cost directly allocatable to a productive account or cost centreProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Direct Labour(1) Labour which can be directly related/allocated to output of a productive account or cost centre compared with indirect labour which is not directly related to output
Direct Man-hoursMan-hours which are directly related to the output of a productive account or cost centre as opposed to indirect man-hours
Direct MaterialPurchased material which is directly used a part of the output of a productive account or cost centreProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Discounted Cash FlowOverall cash flow on a project discounted to net present value or a specific year valueProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
DiscountingApplication of compound interest to adjust costs placed earlier in time
Disposal CostThe cost incurred at the end of an assets working life which would include the cost of demolition scrap or resale value and labour costProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
DisruptionDisturbance, hindrance or interruption of a Contractor's normal work progress, resulting in lower efficiency or lower productivity than would otherwise be achieved. Disruption does not necessarily result in a Delay to Progress or Delay to Completion.The Society of Construction, Law, Delays and Disruption Protocol
DistributablesA category of costs which are spread or apportioned over other cost itemsProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Double Shift WorkTwo separate labour teams operating in consecutive shiftsProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Down TimePeriod when equipment or plant is non-operational planned or unplanned
Drawing Measure/QuantitiesConstruction or material quantities as measured from drawingsProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
DummiesThe logic linking activitiesProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
DurationElapsed time for work to be done underpinned by quantities or standard timeProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
DurationDuration is the length of time needed to complete an activity. The time period can be determined inductively, by determining the start and finish date of an activity or deductively by calculation from the time necessary to expend the resources applied to the activity.The Society of Construction, Law, Delays and Disruption Protocol
E&OEErrors and Omissions Excepted - a qualification clause commonly used to cover mistakes in quotationsProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Earliest Event Time (EET) Early CompleteThe earliest time an event can be completed within the logic and imposed targets in the networkProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Early StartThe earliest time an event can start within the logic and imposed targets in the networkProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Early Warning System (EWS)System/process to give advance notice of a potential cost/time over-run of a deliverable/projectProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Earned IncomeActual income value to date for services rendered work performed or materials suppliedProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Earned Man-hoursBudget man-hours for work completedProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Earned ValueBudget value for work completed; the value of the useful work done at any given point in a projectProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
ECGDExport Credit Guarantee Department - an official UK Government office for insurance of payment on overseas sales or contractsProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Effective DateCut-off date for the data incorporated into a cost/progress reportProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Element of Competence (VQ)The smallest sub-division of a unit of competenceProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
EmployerThe employer is the party under the contract who agrees to pay for the works. In some of the standard forms, the party who agrees to pay for the works is referred to as the Developer, the Owner, the Client or the Authority. The Procotol is applicable to sub-contracts as well as main contacts, so when it is being applied to a sub-contract, it is the main contractor that is being referred to as the Employer in the ProtocolThe Society of Construction, Law, Delays and Disruption Protocol
Employer DelayExpression commonly used to describe any delay caused by an Employer Risk Event. The Protocol distinguishes between: Employer Delay to Progress which is a delay which will merely cause delay to the Contractor's progress without causing a contract completion not to be met; and Employer Delay to Completion which is a delay which will cause a contract completion date not to be met.The Society of Construction, Law, Delays and Disruption Protocol
Employer Risk EventAn event or cause of delay which under the contract is at the risk and responsibility of the Employer.The Society of Construction, Law, Delays and Disruption Protocol
Engineers Order (EO) (aka Work Order-)Order raised by an Engineer or his delegate releasing a work package to be delivered to the required scope
EPCEngineering Procurement and Construction - An integrated contract covering all these functions to manage/delive
Equipment Cost(1) Delivered capital cost of permanent plant and equipment
Equipment List/ Plant ListDesign and progress document listing all items of major equipment/plant on a projectProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Erected CostTotal cost of erected equipment facilitiesProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
ErectionInstallation of equipment materials
Escalated CostCosts which have been escalated from actual or estimated values to equivalent values at a new date
EscalationCost increases arising from inflation or market forces resulting in a change in value against time referenced to a base date
EstimateEvaluation of expected quantities time and man-hours
Estimate AuthorisationEstimate approval at the appropriate level of authorityProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Estimate BasisDocument defining all conditions and assumptions used in the preparation of an estimateProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Estimate ClassificationCategorisation of an estimate based on levels of detail and accuracy (eg Class I Class II
Estimate ReliabilityLevel of confidence in an estimated value and the quality of underpinning informationProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Estimate to CompleteEstimate of remaining costs man-hours or quantities to completionProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
EstimatorA specialist who maintains the generic project models and norms for the business and applies item or industry standards in the preparation of the various classes of estimateProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
EventThe end or start of an activityProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Event TimeThe time by which an event can be (or is to be) achievedProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Ex Quay (Duty of Buyer's A/C)All goods for which all import duties and taxes are routed through the buyer's accountProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Ex Quay (Duty Paid)All goods for which unloading from ship import duties
Ex ShipAll goods which unloading documentation
Ex WorksGoods from the factory millProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Excusable DelayExpression sometimes used to describe what in the Protocol is an Employer Delay in respect of which the Contractors is entitled to an EOT.The Society of Construction, Law, Delays and Disruption Protocol
ExpenditureTotal value of all invoices and charges either paid or approved for paymentProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Extension of TimeContractual extension of time to reflect agreed claims/scope changes. Sometimes used to minimise the risk of invoking penalty clausesProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
FacilitiesServices to support the delivery and operation of a projectProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Factored Estimate(1) Front-end estimate created by factoring/modelling known costs from previous similar projects or part projects
Factors (VQ)Things that may affect the setting of objectives or their achievementProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
FASFree alongside ship - cost of goods and all charges up to placement alongside a vessel at a contracted portProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Feasibility StudyAssessment of the technical and/or commercial viability of a project (research/ investment)Provoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Feed-backOut-turn data used to create norms and modelling data structured to underpin future estimate. It includes data on how a process or a product meets expectations.Provoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Feed-outTerm used for the analysed presentation of tender information normally prepared by an estimator for used by the project execution team as a basis for cost contro
Field Administration and SupervisionSite administrative and supervisory staffProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Field BudgetAuthorised target for field activities based on designed quantities and associated budget man-hours and infrastructure/construction plant costs.Provoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Field ChangeField-authorised change to overcome problems with the as-designed construction or erection drawing or specificationProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Field Controllable CostsCost which can only be controlled on siteProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Field ProratesField indirect cost distributed over direct construction cost accountsProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Field Purchase OrderPurchased Order raised and authorised at siteProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Field Purchased MaterialPermanent material purchased by site against a Field Purchase OrderProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Final AccountAgreed final settlement of payment under a contractProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Final MeasureAgreed final measurement from as-built drawings or site constructionProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Financial ModelPlan of proposed or anticipated income and expenditure against time for a projectProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Finish-to-FinishActivity B cannot finish until activity A has finished. It implies that B can finish at the same time as A, but not before it.The Society of Construction, Law, Delays and Disruption Protocol
Finish-to-startThe normal sequential relationship of one activity following another. Activity B cannot start until activity A has finished.The Society of Construction, Law, Delays and Disruption Protocol
Firm PricePrice fixed in all respects apart from an escalation clause in some contracts where additional payment may be made using an agreed formula against a base dateProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Fixed Assets RegisterList of the current asset value of all completed/operational projects. This may be sub-divided into main areas/facilities created by the projectProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Fixed CapitalCapital value of fixed assets land structures and equipment
Fixed FeeContract for service for which there is no adjustment for escalation or other reasons within the contract period providing scope is unalteredProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Fixed Lump Sum PriceSingle price for specified scope of work not subject to adjustment for escalation or other reasonsProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Fixed PricePrice held for fixed duration for specified goods or servicesProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Fixed Unit PriceUnit price held for fixed duration for specified goods or servicesProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
FloatThe duration an activity can move in time without effecting the critical pathProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Float (Business/Stock)A buffer level of cash goods or stock maintained for immediate use maintained at a predetermined levelProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Float ErosionThe using up of available floatProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Fluctuation ClauseContractual clause covering the procedure for handling price adjustments due to cost of living increases during the contract periodProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
FOBFree On Board - cost of goods and all charges up to being placed on board a vessel at the named portProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
FORFree On Rail - cost of goods and all charges up to being placed on railway trucks at the contracted stationProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Force-Majeure ClauseContractual disaster clause specifying as a consequence of an Act of God i.e. Earthquake
Form of ContractAgreement document legally binding and enforceable in law. Can be standard form of contract
Forward Cost EstimateForecast of outstanding costs usually to completion of a phase or the projectProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Forward EscalationAnticipated increases in costs arising from escalationProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Forward Labour Load (Resource Requirements)Anticipated future manpower requirementProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Free FloatThe duration an activity can move without moving the adjacent activities planned datesProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Free Issue MaterialFabrication or construction materials supplied at no cost
Fringe BenefitsThe non-projective employment cost to cover employee terms and conditions such as holidays sick leave
Front EndTerm commonly used to describe the initial design or definition phase of a project Provoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Funding EstimateGenerally a class II estimate to underpin the funding case approvalProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Gantt ChartTime based activity chart showing logical links and key datesProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
General ReservesProvision within a cost estimate for undefined risksProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Global ClaimA global claim is one in which the Contractor seeks compensatiopn for a group of Employer Risk Events but does not or cannot demonstrate a direct link between the loss incurred and the individual Employer Risk Risk Events.The Society of Construction, Law, Delays and Disruption Protocol
Grass-Roots PlantDevelopment of a Greenfield site from site preparation to a completed facilityProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Green Field SiteVirgin site where no prior structural development has occurredProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Gross CommitmentTotal value of all orders placed to date including letters and telexes of intentProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Gross Margin/ProfitOperating profit revenue
GrowthIncrease costs arising from evolution of work scope from R&D design development
Guaranteed Maximum Price (GMP)Contractual conditions which limits reimbursement to a maximum payment and for which completion is guaranteedProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Gulf Coast Man-hoursContraction man-hours calculated using Gulf Coast normsProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Gulf Coast NormsStandard construction man-hour norms developed from various US Gulf Coast projects dataProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
HammockAn activity representating the period from the start of an activity to the completion of another. Sometimes used as a ways of summarising the duration of a number of acitivites in a programme as one single duration.Provoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Handling CostCosts of handling storing
HandoverCompletion of a project or area of a project and transfer to the client or next ownerProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Hanging ActivityAn activity not linked to any preceding or successor activities. Same as dangling activity.The Society of Construction, Law, Delays and Disruption Protocol
Hard TargetThe activity must not start before a set date and/or must complete by a set dateProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Head office Overhead formulae - Eichleay Formulacontract turnover x fixed overheads for contract period total turnover = contract contribution; contract contribution = weekly contribution from contract period; weekly contribution x delay = sum claimable The Society of Construction, Law, Delays and Disruption Protocol
Head office Overhead formulae - Emden FormulaO&P x contract sum x period of delay 100 contract sum O&P head office overheads and profit percentage (actual)The Society of Construction, Law, Delays and Disruption Protocol
Head office Overhead formulae - Hudson formulaO&P x contract sum x period of delay 100 contract period O&P head office overheads and profit percentage in tender. The Society of Construction, Law, Delays and Disruption Protocol
Height MoneyWage adjustment for working at heights or adjacent to holes generally in accordance with trades union working agreements
Hierarchy of ProgrammesThe suite of programmes necessary to control the project/contract generally at three levels though can go deeper
HistogramBar chart indicating estimated or actual resources over each period of the contractProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Historical Data/AnalysisDetailed and systematic analysis of recorded cost and performance data on a collection of completed projects/ project phasesProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
ICECInternational Cost Engineering CouncilProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
ImpactThe effect that a change has on an activity or the effect that a change to one activity has on another activity.The Society of Construction, Law, Delays and Disruption Protocol
Impact (R)The effect of an occurrence on cost or time generally linked to rankings for magnitude at risk workshops for conversion to modelling values
In-houseCompany's internal resource or informationProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
In-house EstimateEstimate underpinned by company's own information without use of vendor or contractor
In-Place Sub-Contracts.Provoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Incentive CostThe cost of bonus incentive payments on contractProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Incentive PaymentsAdditional payments to labour and or subs/contractors for incentive purposesProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Incurred CostActual cost to date of services rendered, work done or materials supplied
Indefinite ScheduleUn-resourced scheduleProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Indirect CostsCost for support/infrastructure eg
Indirect WagesIndirect labour wagesProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
IndirectsAll labour material
Inflated CostArtificially uplifted cost as a provision for unknowns etc
Initial Approved CostInitial approved base cost against which subsequent cost movements are measured and reportedProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Initial Objective (VQ)Goals that are regarded as potentially achievable before a detailed analysis has been carried outProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Installed CostCloseout cost of installed equipment materials and facilities
Installed QuantitiesQuantities installed as measured from design drawingsProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
IntangiblesCost items for non-deliverables (i.e. not a commodity) eg Labour
Integrated Work MeasurementProgress payment structured around integrated cost scheduleThe Society of Construction, Law, Delays and Disruption Protocol
Interest Rate of ReturnDiscounted cash flow where the average outstanding investment and interest charges are repaid by revenue from the project over a defined write off periodProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
InterfaceAn event used to define the common point between one network and another to allow the relationship to be established. This can be within or across projectsProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Interim ValuationInterim payment on an account using an agreed payment framework for work done to date
Internal Change (Internal Risk)Internal evolution of scope the costs of which are absorbed by the contractor or project
Internal TransferTransfer of quantities man-hours or costs from one area of estimate to another
IPMAInternational Project Management AssociationProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
ITPInstruction To ProceedProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
ITSInvitation to BidProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
ITTInvitation to TenderProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Job CardTravelling document authorising a package of site work to be carried out in accordance with attached drawings/ specifications etc
Key DateExpression sometimes used to describe a date by which an identifiable accomplishment must be started or finished. Examples include 'power on','weather-tight' or the start or completion of phases of construction or of phases or sections of the contract, or completion of the works.The Society of Construction, Law, Delays and Disruption Protocol
Key EventMilestone event used to flag important targets/requirements on the projectProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Knock-on Cost/EffectCosts/time impact of a prior or anticipated occurrenceProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Knowledge Evidence(VQ)Evidence which demonstrates an individual's underpinning knowledge and understanding required to support performance to the national standard. It is normally specified in the forms of:-
Labour MixThe distribution of trades in a labour forceProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Labour Only ContractContract for supply of labour onlyProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
LadderWhere a number of activities require partial completion before their subsequent activity can start and completion before the subsequent activity can be freed-up to complete its remaining work. The
LagThe schedule lapse time on a logic link between the start or finish of one activity and the start or finish of an succeeding activityProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Lagged finish-to-finish'd' indicates a finish-to-finish relationship but with a delay, activity B cannot finish until 'd' days (or whatever time units have been used) have elasped after activity A has finished. This convention provides a second means of overlapping timing of activities.The Society of Construction, Law, Delays and Disruption Protocol
Lagged finish-to-startA normal lag relationship between activites A and B; that is, B cannot start until 'd' days have elasped after activity A has finished. An example of this might be the curing time of concrete between completion of the pour and the commencement of further work on the concrete.The Society of Construction, Law, Delays and Disruption Protocol
Lagged start-to-finishThere may be occasions where a lag is required both on the start and finish of related activities. This is achieved by activity B cannot start intil 'd' days after activity A has started and activity B cannot finish until 't' days after activity A has finished.The Society of Construction, Law, Delays and Disruption Protocol
Lagged start-to-startIndicates a start-to-start relationship with the delay imposed showing that activity B cannot start until the period 'd' days has elasped after activity A has started. This convention provides one of the facilities to overlap the execution of activities.The Society of Construction, Law, Delays and Disruption Protocol
Lang FactorsEstimating factors used to convert the manufactured cost of plant into the erected or installed cost and ultimately the completed project cost.
Late CompleteLatest complete date for an activity without affecting the target finish date for the projectProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Late StartLatest start date for an activity without affecting the target finish date for the projectProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Latest Event Time (IET)Latest time an event can occur without affecting the target finish date for the projectProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
LeadIs a logic link with a duration specifying the advance between the proceeding activity and its successorProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Letter of IntentA document issued by a party intending to enter into a contract that purpose to confer upon the opposite party a limited set of rights and conditions with the intention of them commencing their own obligations under the same contractProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Level 1Summary logic showing key activities dates and overall durations
Level 1/Level 2/Level 3 ProgrammesSee Hierarchy of ProgrammesProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Level 2 strategic control programmes showing all strategic activities logic and durations for the project and main areas and phases i.e.
Level 3Detail programmes or schedules under pinning level 2 programme activities and durations Provoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Level of ConfidenceProbability of achievability of the cost and schedule forecasts/base often linked to the risk controlProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Level of effort ProgrammesWhere resources limits have been set for the different skills required and the planning package is allowed to set the elapsed duration for the project activities to stayProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Life Cycle CostThe whole life cost of the asset including capital expenditure.
Liquidated and Ascertained damages, liquidated damages, LADs, LDsA fixed sum, usually per week or per day, written into the contract as being payable by the Contractor in the event that the works are not completed by the contract completion date (original or extended)The Society of Construction, Law, Delays and Disruption Protocol
Method StatementA written description of the Contractor's proposed manner of carrying out the works or parts thereof, setting out the assumptions underlying the programme, the reasoning behind the approach to the various phases of construction and listing all the work encapsulated in the programme activities. It may also contain the activity duration calculations and details of key resources and gang strengths.The Society of Construction, Law, Delays and Disruption Protocol
MilestoneA key event selected for its importance in the project. Commonly used in relation to progress, a milestone is often used to signify a key date.The Society of Construction, Law, Delays and Disruption Protocol
MitigationMitigate means making less severe or less serious. In connection with Delay to Progress or Delay to Completion, it means minimising the impact of the Risk Event. In relation to disruption or inefficient working, it means minimising the disruption or inefficiency. Failure to mitigate is commonly pleaded as a defence or partial defence to a claim.The Society of Construction, Law, Delays and Disruption Protocol
Must Start/ Must FinishMost project management software allows the planner to specify that an activity must start or must finish on a specific date. Using the software in this way restricts the ability of the programme to react dynamically to change on the project.The Society of Construction, Law, Delays and Disruption Protocol
Negative LagThe arrangement or sequence in which the successor activity is allowed to start chronologically before the predecessor activity has been completed.The Society of Construction, Law, Delays and Disruption Protocol
Negative total floatExpression sometimes used to describe the time by which the duration of an activity or path has to be reduced in order to permit a limiting imposed date to be achieved. Negative float only occurs when an activity on the critical path is behing programme. It is a programming concept, the manifestation of which is, of course, delay.The Society of Construction, Law, Delays and Disruption Protocol
Non-compensable eventExpression sometimes used to describe what the Protocol calls a Contractor Risk Event.The Society of Construction, Law, Delays and Disruption Protocol
Non-excusable delayExpression sometimes used to describe what the Protocol calls Contractor Delay.The Society of Construction, Law, Delays and Disruption Protocol
Outstanding CommitmentThe current Gross commitment less payments plus accruals for work/services completed against the contracted scopeProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
PathAn activity or an unbroken sequence of activities in a project network.The Society of Construction, Law, Delays and Disruption Protocol
PERTProgramme Evaluation and Review Technique: a programming technique, similiar to critical path analysis, but whereby the probability of completing by the contract completion date is determined and monitored by way of a quantified risk assessment based on optimistic, pessimistic and most likely activity durations.The Society of Construction, Law, Delays and Disruption Protocol
Practical CompletionThe completion of all the construction work that has to be done, subject only to very minor items of work left incomplete. It is generally the date when the obligation to insure passes from the Contractor to the Employer and the date from whixh the defects liability period runs. This is the term used under the Joint Contract Tribunal (JCT) family of contracts. Under the Institution of Civil Engineers (ICE) froms and in the International Federation of Consulting Engineers (FIDIC) forms it is referred to as Substantial Completion.The Society of Construction, Law, Delays and Disruption Protocol
Precedence diagramA multiple dependency, activity-on-node network in which a sequence arrow represents one of four forms of precedence relationship, depending on the positioning of the head and the tail of the sequence now. The Society of Construction, Law, Delays and Disruption Protocol
ProgrammeThe programme illustrates the major sequencing and phasing requirements of the project. Otherwise known as the schedule.The Society of Construction, Law, Delays and Disruption Protocol
ProlongationProlongation is the extended duration of the works during which costs are incurred as a result of a delay.The Society of Construction, Law, Delays and Disruption Protocol
ResourceExpression used to describe any variable capable of definition that is required for the completion of an activity and may constrain the project. This may be a person, item of equipment, service or material that is used in accomplishing a project task.The Society of Construction, Law, Delays and Disruption Protocol
Resource LevellingExpression used to describe the process of amending a schedule to reduce the variation between maximum and minimum values of resource requirements. The process removes peaks, troughs and conflicts in resource demands by moving activities within their early and late dates and taking up float. Most project planning software offers an automated resource-levelling routine that will defer the performance of a task within the imposed logical constraints until the resources assigned to the tasks are available.The Society of Construction, Law, Delays and Disruption Protocol
ScheduleAnother name for the programmeThe Society of Construction, Law, Delays and Disruption Protocol
SlackAnother name for total floatThe Society of Construction, Law, Delays and Disruption Protocol
Start-to-startActivity B cannot start until activity A has started or perhaps, more accurately, activity B can start at the same time as activity A but not before it.The Society of Construction, Law, Delays and Disruption Protocol
Still to be CommittedThe difference between current Gross Commitment and the total planned commitment to complete the Project/ContractProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Sub-NetworkA group of activites or durations, logically linked. In the Protocol it is to be used to illustrate the work flowing directly from an Employer Risk Event.The Society of Construction, Law, Delays and Disruption Protocol
Time Impact AnalysisMethod of delay analysis where the impacts of particular delays are mapped out at the point in time at which they occur, allowing the discrete effect of individual events to be determined.The Society of Construction, Law, Delays and Disruption Protocol
Total FloatThe overall time available within a schedule or programme from the activities earliest start to its latest finish date without affecting the overall project end dateProvoc - Glossary of Common Project Control Terms
Total FloatThe amount of time that an activity may be delayed beyond its early start/early finish dates without delaying the contract completion dateThe Society of Construction, Law, Delays and Disruption Protocol
Updated ProgrammeIn the Protocol the Updated Programme is the Accepted Programme updated with all progress achieved. The final Updated Programme should depict the as-built programme.The Society of Construction, Law, Delays and Disruption Protocol
WorksWhat the contractor is obligated to construct is referred to as the works.The Society of Construction, Law, Delays and Disruption Protocol